Geography (GS) + Environment + Biology + Major Crops [PDF]

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Contents

Geography Notes for GS

Geomorphology

• Earth’s Interior – Earthquake Waves – Shadow Zone
• Earth’s Layers – Earth’s Composition
• Earth Movements – Endogenetic Movements
• Weathering – Exogenetic Earth Movements
• Continental Drift Theory – Tectonics
• See Floor Spreading – Paleomagnetism
• Plate Tectonics – Indian Plate Movement
• Ocean – Ocean Convergence
• Continent – Ocean Convergence
• Continent – Continent Convergence
• Types of Mountains – Classification of Mountains
• Fold Mountains – Block Mountains
• Himalayas – Andes – Rockies – Urals – Drakensberg
• Divergent Boundary – African Rift System
• Volcanism – Andesitic, Basaltic – Geyser,Spring
• Volcanic Landforms – Extrusive, Intrusive
• Volcanism Types Based on Out Flow of Lava
• Hotspot Volcanism – Hawaiian, Reunion Hotspot
• Earthquakes – Seismic Waves
• Tsunami – 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami
• Rocks – Igneous – Sedimentary – Metamorphic
• Fluvial Erosional Landforms – River Valley
• Fluvial Depositional Landforms – Delta Types
• Glacial Landforms – Erosional and Depositional
• Marine Landforms – Coastlines
• Arid Landforms – Wind Eroded – Water Eroded
• Karst Landforms – Stalactite, Stalagmite
• Lake – Classification of Lakes
• Important Lakes on Earth – Facts About Lakes
• Plateaus Types – Major Plateaus of The World

Climatology

• Latitudes and Longitudes – Standard Time
• Rotation and Revolution of Earth
• Atmosphere – Role, Structure, Composition
• Temperature Distribution on Earth – Heat Budget
• Adiabatic Lapse Rate – Latent Heat of Condensation
• Pressure Belts and Wind Systems
• Wind Movement – Coriolis Force
• Winds – Permanent, Secondary, Local Winds
• Temperature Inversion – Types – Effects on Weather
• Jet Streams – Geostrophic Wind
• Subtropical Jet Stream – Polar Jet Stream
• Air Mass – Air Masses Classification
• Fronts – Types of Fronts – Occluded Front
• Humidity – Relative Humidity – Dew point
• Condensation – Forms of Condensation – Clouds
• Photochemical smog – Sulfurous smog
• Types of Precipitation and Rainfall
• Thunderstorm – Thunder Lightning – Tornado
• Tropical Cyclones – Favorable Conditions, Formation
• Storm Surge – Cyclones in Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal
• Temperate Cyclones – Mid Latitude Cyclone
• Tropical Cyclones vs. Temperate Cyclones
• El Nino – ENSO – La Nina – El Nino Modoki – IOD
• Polar Vortex – Ozone Hole – Ozone Depletion

Climatic Regions

• Rainforest Climate – Tropical Evergreen Climate
• Monsoon Climate – Monsoon Forests
• Savanna Climate – Tropical Wet Dry Climate
• Desert Climate – Hot Deserts, Mid-Latitude Deserts
• Steppe Climate – Temperate Grassland Climate
• Mediterranean Climate – Western Margin Climate
• China Type Climate – Gulf Type, Natal Type
• British Type Climate – European Maritime Climate
• Taiga Climate – Coniferous forests – Lumbering
• Laurentian Climate | Fishing off Newfoundland, Japan
• Tundra Climate – Polar Climate – Arctic Climate

Oceanography

• Ocean Relief – Major Ocean Relief Features
• Marginal Seas – Bay, Gulf, Strait, Isthmus
• Pacific Ocean – Atlantic Ocean – Indian Ocean
• Ocean currents – Factors responsible – Effects
• Pacific Ocean Currents – Phytoplankton
• Atlantic Ocean Currents – Sargasso Sea
• Indian Ocean Currents – Effect of Monsoons
• Temperature Distribution of Oceans
• Ocean Salinity – Vertical, Horizontal Distribution
• Tides | Spring Tide, Neap Tide | Tidal Bore
• Coral Reef – Fringing Reef | Barrier Reef | Atoll
• Coral Bleaching | Zooxanthellae

Indian Geography

• India – Geographical Extent, Frontiers
• Indian Rock System
• Himalayas – Himalayan Ranges
• Himalayas – Regional Divisions
• Himalayas – Glaciers, Valleys, Snowline
• Mountain Passes – India & Himalayas
• Indo – Gangetic – Brahmaputra Plain
• Divisions of Indo – Gangetic – Brahmaputra Plains
• Peninsular Plateau – Deccan Plateau
• Aravalis-Vindhyas-Satpuras-Western & Eastern Ghats
• Coastline of India – Coastal Plains of India
• Indian Islands – Andaman-Nicobar-Lakshadweep-New Moore
• Drainage Patterns – Discordant-Concordant
• Drainage Systems of India
• Indus River System – Jhelum-Chenab-Ravi-Beas-Satluj
• Ganga – Brahmaputra River System
• Peninsular River System vs. Himalayan River System
• Godavari – Krishna – Mahanadi
• Cauvery – Pennar – Subarnarekha – Ponnaiyar – Vaigai
• Narmada – Tapti – Sabarmati – Mahi – Luni – Ghaggar
• Indian Monsoons – ITCZ – Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone
• Indian Monsoon Mechanism – Jet Stream Theory
• Indian Monsoons – Easterly Jet, Tibet, Somali Jet
• Indian Monsoons – South West, North East Monsoons
• Western Disturbances – Cloudburst
• Indian Climate – Climate of India
• Winter Season – Summer Season – Indian Climate
• South West Monsoon Season
• Retreating Monsoon – North East Monsoon
• Climatic Regions of India – Stamp’s, Koeppen’s
• Forests – Natural Vegetation of India
• Soil Profile – Soil Horizon – Soil Types
• Soil formation in Indian Conditions
• Alluvial Soils – Black Soils – Soil Types
• Red Soils – Lateritic Soils – Alkaline Soils
• Soil Degradation -Soil Erosion – Desertification
• Soil Conservation – Various Methods

Economic Geography

• Iron Ore Distribution across the World
• Iron Ore Distribution in India
• Coal – Formation of Coal – Types of Coal
• Coal in India – Gondwana Coal – Tertiary Coal
• Distribution of Coal across the World
• Petroleum and Mineral Oil in India
• Petroleum and Mineral Oil – World distribution
• Natural Gas Distribution – World, India
• Shale Gas | Coalbed Methane
• Manganese ore Distribution – India, World
• Gold | Silver Distribution – India & World
• Copper | Nickel | Chromite Distribution
• Bauxite | Lead & Zinc | Tungsten | Pyrites
• Nuclear Fission | Nuclear Reactor Types
• Uranium | Thorium – Distribution
• India’s Three-Stage Nuclear Power Programme
• Diamond | Graphite – Distribution India, World
• Mica | Limestone | Non-Metallic Minerals in India

Environment

• Environment Questions Asked in Prelims – Mains (2011-15)
• Solved Environment Prelims Questions (2011-15)
• Environment and Ecosystem – Components of an Ecosystem
• Ecology – Principles and Organizations
• Ecotone – Edge Effect | Ecological Niche
• Ecological succession – Primary & Secondary Succession | Homeostasis
• Trophic Levels – Food Chain – Food Web – Biotic Interaction
• Ecological Pyramids – Pyramid of numbers, biomass & energy
• Pollutants And Trophic Level – Biomagnification
• Nutrient Cycles | Biogeo Chemical Cycles
• Biomes – Terrestrial Ecosystems
• Eutrophication – Algal Bloom
• Aquatic Ecosystems
• Wetlands – Wetland Ecosystem
• Ramsar Sites in India – Ramsar Convention on Wetlands
• Mangrove and Estuarine Ecosystems
• Environmental Degradation & Himalayan Environment
• Soil Erosion – Wind & Water Erosion | Desertification
• Air Pollution – Major Air Pollutants – Prevention & Control
• Ozone Depletion | Ozone Hole – Causes, Effects
• Photochemical smog – Sulfurous smog
• Polar Vortex – Ozone Hole – Ozone Depletion
• Acid Rain – Causes, Effects | Ocean Acidification
• Water Pollution – Causes, Control Measures
• Effects of Water Pollution on Health and Environment
• Water Conservation and Management
• Radioactive Pollution – Ionizing and Non-Ionizing Radiation Effects
• Solid Hazardous E – Waste & Heavy Metal Toxicity
• Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)
• Biodiversity – Biodiversity of India
• Loss of Biodiversity – Man Animal Conflict – Culling
• Biodiversity Conservation – In Situ & Ex Situ Conservation
• Biodiversity Hot Spots Across India and World
• IUCN Red List India – Red Data List – Red Book – 1
• IUCN Red List India – Red Data List – Red Book – 2
• IUCN Red List India – Red Data List – Red Book – 3
• Insectivorous Plants of India
• Diclofenac – Indian Vulture Crisis
• Greenhouse Effect & Global Warming | Carbon Sink
• Earth Summit 1992 – UNCED | CBD | UNCCD
• UNFCCC – Kyoto Protocol – Carbon Credits Trading
• Paris Summit 2015 – Lima Summit 2014 – INDC
• REDD | IPCC | Global Environment Facility | Arctic Council
• National Action Plan On Climate Change
• Pollution Environment & Biodiversity Conservation Laws
• Project Tiger – Elephant – Indian Rhino – Snow Leopard
• Green Revolution – Bringing Green Revolution in Eastern India
• Sustainable Agriculture – Organic Farming – Biofertilizers
• Genetically Modified Crops – Benefits/Controversies
• Newer Agricultural Practices & Misc Topics
• Renewable & Non-Conventional Sources Of Energy
• Non-Renewable Sources Of Energy

Biology

• Cell Organelles | Plant Cell vs. Animal Cell
• Carbohydrates | Monosaccharides | Polysaccharides
• Proteins | Amino Acids | Enzymes
• Vitamins and Minerals – Deficiency Diseases
• Fats | Healthy Fats and Unhealthy Fats
• Animal Tissues – Epithelium, Connective Tissues
• Human Digestive System | Digestive Glands
• Respiratory System – NCERT General Science
• Endocrine Glands and Hormones
• Human Neural System | Human Brain
• Muscular and Skeletal System
• Nucleic acids – DNA and RNA | Recombinant DNA
• Mitosis | Cell Cycle | Cell Division
• Meiosis | Mitosis – Meiosis Comparison
• Inheritance – Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance
• Chromosomal Theory | Human Genome Project
• Sex Determination | Genetic Disorders
• Diseases Caused by Microorganisms
• Microbes In Human Welfare | Useful Microbes
• Immunity | Human Immune System
• AIDS | Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome
• Cancer | Causes of Cancer – NCERT
• Drugs and Alcohol Abuse – NCERT
• Diseases | Acute, Chronic, Communicable Diseases
• Blood | Blood Groups | Formed Elements
• Circulatory System | Double Circulation
• Excretory System | Kidney | Urine Formation
• Origin and Evolution of Life on Earth
• Biological Classification – General Science
• Five Kingdom Classification of Plants and Animals
• Plant Parts and Their Functions
• Plant Kingdom – Thallophytes (Algae) – Bryophytes – Pteridophytes
• Plants with Seeds – Gymnosperms and Angiosperms
• Plant Tissue – Meristematic – Simple, Complex Permanent Tissue
• Plant Nutrition – Photosynthesis | Nitrogen Cycle, Fixation
• Sexual and Asexual Reproduction in Plants
• Classification of Animal Kingdom (Animalia)
• Classification of Vertebrata (Phylum Chordata)
• Human Reproductive System
• Biotechnology | Genetic Engineering – Processess and Applications
• Atomic Theory – Structure of an Atom

Major Crops

• Cropping Pattern
• Factors affecting cropping pattern
• Major Crops of India
• Crop Classification
• Major Food Crops of India
• Major Cash Crops of India
• Plantation Crops in India